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ROYAL BURGH OF ST. ANDREWS. 


REPORTS 

I V 

BY 

Medical Officer .X 


AND 


Sanitary Inspector 


For the Year 1931. 



W. 0. HENDERSON & SON. LTD.. UNIVERSITY PPESS, ST. ANDREWS. 















ROYAL BURGH OF ST. ANDREWS. 


REPORTS 

BY 

Medical Officer 


AND 


Sanitary Inspector 


For the Year 1931. 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2016 with funding from 
Wellcome Library 


https://archive.org/details/b28656829 


To the Department of Health for Scotland, The Provost, Magis- 
trates and Councillors of the Royal Burgh of St. Andrews. 


Gentlemen, 

In submitting my Report on the Health of the Burgh of 
St. Andrews for the year 1931, I gladly avail myself of an oppor- 
tunity of expressing my indebtedness to all those associated with 
me in the health activities of the Burgh. In particular do 1 
desire to acknowledge the advice and help given me by Dr. G 
Pratt Yule, Chief Medical Officer of Health, Fife County. 

I have the honour to be, 

Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 

G. MATTHEW FYFE, M.B., Ch.B., D.P.H., 
Medical Officer. 


April, 1932. 

Public Health Department, 
County Buildings. 

Cupar, Fife. 


INDEX. 


Introductory, 

Statistical Comments, 

Environmental Conditions — 

Drainage, 

Water Supply, 

Atmospheric Conditions, 

Offensive Trades, 

Housing Conditions, 

Building Bye-laws, 

Town Planning, 

Infectious Diseases — 

Use of Disinfectants, 

Diphtheria Immunisation, 

Mother and Child Welfare Scheme — 
Births, 

Infantile Mortality, 

Maternal Mortality, 

Nursing Service, 

Home Visitation, . . • • 

Infant Feeding, 

Ante -Natal Consultations, 

Post-Natal Consultations, 

Child Welfare Consultations — 

Child Welfare Centre. 

James Mackenzie Institute, 
Observation Nursery, 

Food and Milk Supply 
Provisions for Maternity Cases, . . 
Provision for Cases of Puerperal Fev 

Food Supply — 

Milk Supply, 

Sale of Food and Drugs Acts, 
Factory and Workshops Act, 

Report of Sanitary Inspector, 


ANNUAL REPORT, 1931. 


INTRODUCTORY. 

A favourable environment is necessary for the full develop- 
ment of the high qualities which are conferred by inheritance 
upon a race or individual. Recognition of this fact as applied 
to mankind has been the force which has inspired the amazing 
advances in sanitary science of the past half century. Biological 
research has led to the effective control of many infectious dis- 
eases, to the purification of water supplies, to the conservation 
of drainage, to the improvement of housing and to the protection 
of infant and maternal life, while industrial research has led to 
the betterment of working conditions. In short, all the ramifica- 
tions of the public health organisation of the nation has been 
employed in removing from the path of the individual those 
external influences which actively threaten existence. The 
result has been an increase in the capacity and in the expectation 
of life of the individual. The following pages of this Report will 
show that St. Andrews Town Council have been alive to modern 
advances in sanitary science and have applied them for the 
benefit of the citizens. 

Regard for the state of health of the community, however, 
is not a matter which is solely the concern of the Local Authority. 
Each individual is under an obligation to safeguard his health in 
the interests of himself and of his neighbours. Nevertheless, 
the vast majority of people are daily showing the utmost disregard 
for their welfare by the nature of the food they are consuming. 
The modern craze for attractive food has led to a serious lack of 
balance in the national diet thereby causing an alarmingly in- 
creased incidence in those common disorders of the respiratory 
and digestive tracts which are the chief causes of disability among 
the population. More than half the nation’s food supply is 
manufactured and people are consuming too much sugar and 
starch and too little fresh food. 

Evidence regarding the injurious nature of the nation’s food 
supply is accumulating and St. Andrews is sharing in the work. 
The Medical Research Council’s Report on “ An Enquiry into the 
Diet of 154 families of St. Andrews ” by Professor Cathcart and 
Mrs. A. M. T. Murray has shown an unexpected lack of balance 
in the food supply in the city. The work of Dr. J. Hunter P. 
Paton in the James Mackenzie Institute on the relation between 
the consumption of carbohydrates and common catarrhal dis- 
orders has provided clear indication of the evil effect attending 
the ill-balanced diet of to-day. The results of these investiga- 
tions will be added to the volume of information which is being 
gathered in other parts of the country and it is hoped that before long 
there will occur a national awakening to the danger which menaces. 


8 


to be less evident, but the popular by-paths of the city were 
hardly ever free from contamination. During the year the 
number of dog licences issued was 503. The number of dogs kept 
in the town each year is remarkably constant. 

Two criticisms can be levelled against the arrangements for the 
collection of refuse. The first refers to the continued disinclina- 
tion of householders to provide themselves with covered bins and 
the second to the lack of care which is sometimes shown in 
emptying bins into the refuse collector with the result that dust 
is blown about, threatening passers-by and houses and food 
shops when doors and windows are open. Both are menaces to 
health which could be easily obviated by co-operation on the part 
of those concerned. 


Water Supply. 

Since the year 1926 when the attention of the Town Council 
was directed to the inadequacy of the precautions which were 
being taken to safeguard the water supply, a steady sequence of 
improvements have been effected at the water works with the 
result that, while in 1926 bacillus coli communis — an organism 
whose presence indicates pollution — was consistently present in 
less than 1 c.c. of water, at the end of 1931 it was regularly absent 
in even 100 c.c. of water. 

The achievement reflects the greatest credit on the Town Council 
who have now provided for the town a water supply of more than 
ample quantity and of purest quality. 

From Cameron Reservoir, which has a capacity of 222 million 
gallons, water is conducted by two mains (a new one having been 
laid down in 1931) to Upper Pipeland, at which station the work 
of purifying the water supply has been entirely concentrated, the 
old four filters at Lower Pipeland having been scrapped, along 
with the connection to Cairnsmill reservoir. The unfiltered 
water passes through a Control House, where it is screened, into 
four Primary Filters which remove heavy deposits. The water 
is then collected in a Balance Tank of 60,000 gallons capacity 
which ensures that the Secondary Filters receive a regular supply 
of water at even pressure. From the Balance Tank the water is 
drawn off into two small Control Wells from which it is distributed 
to twelve Secondary Filters for final removal of suspended matter. 
The purified water is then collected in four Clear Water Wells, 
two at Upper and two at Lower Pipeland. The total capacity 
of these wells is 560,000 gallons. 

Among the accessory appliances which have been installed at 
the Works are two Venturimeters which record the amount of 
water passed to the town and two sandwashers of modern pattern. 


9 


All the secondary filters are covered with 24 inch layers of Arran 
sand, except three which will be similarly treated in clue course. 

So far as is known the system of water purification at St. 
Andrews is the most complete and up-to-date of its kind in the 
country. It is well worth a visit of inspection. 

During the year the average consumption of water per head of 
population was 71.7 gallons. The figure is the highest ever 
recorded. The amount is extravagant and there is little doubt 
but that a great deal of wastage occurred either through running 
taps or through leakage in the main system. No harm was done, 
however, since the amount of water available is more than 
sufficient to meet even a considerably greater consumpt. 

Atmospheric Conditions. 

The new meteorological station at the Bruce Embankment 
operated satisfactorily throughout the year. 

The sunniest month was May when there was 2 1 S'O hours of 
bright sunshine. The total number of hours of bright sunshine 
for the year was 1376 - 8, the third highest number of hours 
recorded among the twenty-one stations in Scotland. 

The warmest month was June and the coldest month was March. 

The mean temperature for the whole year was 46 - 7 degrees F. 
a figure which gives an accurate indication of the average tempera- 
ture maintained over the past ten years. It is of interest on this 
account to note that Dr. Rotheram, Professor of Natural Phil- 
osophy in the University of St. Andrews, in 1807 “ by a series of 
accurate observations found the medium temperature of the air 
at St. Andrews, during a period of seven years, to be 54 degrees 
of Farnheit.” Many inhabitants will readily subscribe to the 
suggestion that the climate of St. Andrews has become colder 
during the past few decades. 

The driest month was December and the wettest month was 
July. The total amount of rainfall for the year was 32 - 86 inches, 
0.9 inches more than in 1930. 

Ultra-violet light radiation continued to be recorded on the 
tower at Kinburn. The following are the average monthly 
readings, one unit being equal to twice the amount of ultra- 
violet light necessary to produce sunburn : — 

Month. Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. 

Unite. 0-9 10 IT IT 18 30 18 13 IT 13 05 01 

The average amount of radiation for the year was P26 as com- 
pared with P98 in 1930. 

Offensive Trades. 

The unsatisfactory features of the arrangements for meat 
inspection which were discussed in the Report for 1930 were con- 


10 


sidered by the Town Council and the County Council were asked 
to take steps to improve matters. A conference was called 
between representatives of both bodies as a result of which the 
County Council agreed, as a temporary measure, to appoint Mr. 
Peter Young, Veterinary Surgeon, St. Andrews, Meat Inspector 
and Detention Officer. The new arrangement Is an improvement 
upon that which followed the local government reform of 1930 
since it permits of a much closer supervision of the meat supply. 

The erection of a new slaughterhouse was decided upon by 
the Town Council and a site at Maryfield, outside the Burgh 
boundaries, was acquired. The premises are now in course of 
erection. The new slaughterhouse will contain lairage for cattle, 
sheep and pigs, a commodious pig slaughter hall, a slaughter hall 
in which twelve cattle can be dressed at one time, a meat -cooling 
chamber, a detention room, booths for tripe and gut cleaning and 
a hide store. The walls of the slaughter halls, the cooling chamber 
and the detention room will be tiled to a height of 8 feet. 

The entire building will be fire-proof. 

Stunning pens will be erected in the slaughter hall whereby 
stunned animals will be mechanically tipped on to the floor for 
dressing. The pig slaughter hall will be equipped with a highly- 
up-to-date pig trap and dressing appliances. Every precaution 
has been taken to secure humane methods in the process of killing. 
To facilitate the transference of carcases, overhead tracks will 
lead from the slaughter halls to the cooling chamber and to the 
detention room. 

There can be little doubt but that the new Public Abattoir 
will be one of the most modern and fully equipped of its kind. 

The existing Bye-laws were issued in 1899 and will clearly not 
be sufficiently applicable to conditions in the new Abattoir. 
Accordingly, the Town Council prepared new Bye-laws of more 
comprehensive nature, and submitted them to the Department of 
Health for approval. 

A satisfactory standard of cleanliness w r as maintained in the 
present slaughterhouse in spite of its structural defects. In the 
course of the j^car 3714 animals were slaughtered as compared 
with 3662 in 1930. 3163 pounds of meat and offal were seized 

as unfit for human consumption as compared with 2266 pounds 
in 1930. 

l he state of repair and the structure of the gut and tripe 
premises were considered to be so defective that the Town Council 
instructed that the business of preparing sausages and dripping 
be discontinued. 


11 


Housing Conditions. 


An additional 56 municipal houses were erected during the 
year. These houses were built to meet demands on the part of 
applicants for new houses. Since 1920 the number of houses 
provided by the Local Authority lias been as follows 
Two-roomed houses, 

Tli ree-roomed houses, 

Four-roomed houses, 

Five-roomed houses. 


103 

160 

87 

12 


Total, 


362 


In addition 28 houses were in course of construction at the end 
of the year. 

Two houses were built by private enterprise. 

The Housing Register was reviewed on two or three occasions 

drul 1 t lTFrt fl « <-l i h ^ i- i.1. „ 1 P 1 • n 


creased and decreased in an unaccountable manner, 
day of the year the numbers were as follows : — 

uuuov/o xi i- 

On the last 

Two-roomed houses, 
Three-roomed houses, 
Four-roomed houses, 

Local 

Applicants. 

60 

11 

4 

Outside 

Applicants. 

17 

16 

9 

Total, 

75 

42 

This number did not include the 
houses had been allocated. 

persons to whom the 56 new 


Progress in connection with slum clearance was slow. In view 
of the trade depression in the town and of the apparent un- 
certainty displayed especially by the applicants for three-roomed 
houses, the town Council decided to exercise caution in regard to 
the erection of a further group of houses. Early in the present 
year, however, the situation was carefully reviewed and the facts 
that there was every indication that housing subsidies would 
terminate in 1933, that no provision had been made in past housing 
schemes for the improvement of the housing of the poorer classes 
and that houses could be built with a rental within the means of a 
great many of the poorer people concerned, led the Town Council 
to proceed with the erection of 40 three-roomed houses and 6 
four-roomed houses as the first steps in the proposed Muttoes 
Lane and Lnion Street Areas Clearance Schemes. A site for the 
new houses has been selected. 


12 


When this housing development has been completed the Town 
Council will have erected a total of 436 houses, thereby providing 
for 390 applicants and 46 persons who will be de-housed, although 
it is probable that several of the latter will not become tenants of 
the new houses. 

Since difficulty has already been encountered in finding tenants 
for houses even from the list of applicants, care will require to be 
exercised in proceeding with further housing schemes solely in 
response to the contents of the Housing Register. On the other 
hand, although it seems likely that the problem of Muttoes Lane 
and Union Street will be suitably disposed of, there yet remains 
the problem of insanitary houses in such areas as Shorehead. 
Loudens Close and Balfour Place. Action in connection with the 
unhealthy houses in these localities has been held up pending a 
solution of the Muttoes Lane and Union Street problem. The 
fact must be faced, therefore, that a further instalment of low- 
rented houses may be required before the Burgh becomes rid of 
its uninhabitable houses. 

An estimate of the sufficiency of working class houses, however, 
must be approximate since the number of applicants for houses 
fluctuates and since the housing survey of the town has not yet 
been completed. It is estimated nevertheless that, excluding the 
houses in the Union Street and Muttoes Lane areas, there are 
about 60 additional uninhabitable houses. If there is added the 
number of applicants as at the end of the year the total number 
of houses required is in the neighbourhood of 177. 

During the year plans were reported upon concerning altera- 
tions in 13 dwelling houses, 3 business premises and 1 dairy shop. 
. Three individual houses were reported upon under Section 16 
V the Housing (Scotland) Act, 1930, as unfit for human habita- 
tion. One of them was partially demolished. A demolition 
order was served upon the proprietors concerning another and 
action regarding the third was delayed. 

Bxcilding Bye-laws. 

Bye-laws regulating the building, alteration and reconditioning 
of houses are not yet available in St. Andrews. Progress, how- 
ever, has been made in connection with their preparation. The 
officials of the Burgh have been in close touch with the Con- 
sultative Council on Local Health Administration and General 
Health Questions, who have prepared draft Bye-laws applicable 
to Burghs in Scotland. The proposals are now under the con- 
sideration of the Department of Health and it is to be hoped that 
before long the Town Council will be in a position to prepare 
Bye-laws for the Burgh. 


13 


Town Planning. 

An opportunity is again taken of emphasising the necessity for 
the formation of a 1 own Planning Scheme. During recent years 
the occupied areas of the town have extended considerably and 
although every care has been taken to plan isolated developments 
so that ultimate arrangements will blend, many problems have 
arisen which had much better been dealt with under a Town 
Planning Scheme. Powers to promote any such undertaking now 
rest with the County Council and new legislation is being con- 
sidered by the Government. Nevertheless it would be well if 
an early opportunity were taken by the Town Council to establish 
co-operation and invite action. 

INFECTIOUS DISEASES. 

The following number of cases of infectious diseases were 


notified : — 

Scarlet Fever, . . . . . . . . 3 

Diphtheria, . . . . . . . . . . 8 

Erysipelas, . . . . . . . . . . 2 

Puerperal Fever, . . . . . . . . 1 

Ophthalmia Neonatorum, . . . . . . 2 

Chickenpox, . . . . . . . . . . l(> 

Acute Primary Pneumonia, . . . . . . 8 

Acute Influenzal Pneumonia, . . . . . . 1 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis, . . . . . . 7 

Non-Pulmonary Tuberculosis, . . . . . . 4 

Puerperal Pyrexia, . . . . . . . . 1 

Anterior Poliomyelitis, . . . . . . . . 1 

Total, . . . . . . . . 54 


Only a few cases of measles and whooping cough occurred and 
the prevalence of influenza during the winter months was in- 
significant. On the whole then, in common with the state of 
affairs in the county as a whole, the incidence of infectious dis- 
eases was remarkably low. No deaths occurred from any 
infectious disease. The situation, however, cannot be compared 
with the halcyon days of one hundred years ago. Writing in 
1822 Dr. James Grierson states “ Epidemic, or contagious dis- 
eases, are hardly ever known here ; and it is a common remark 
in the place that if you come in good health, you will scarcely go 
away ill.” 

On the other hand he goes on to say — “ The climate, however, 
is thought to be too sharp and penetrating for rheumatic con- 
stitutions or for such as have a predisposition to pulmonary 
consumption. Such persons seldom find themselves well in 


14 


St. Andrews.” The statement is remarkably true of to-day. St. 
Andrews is no more gentle with the victims of rheumatic affections, 
and the incidence of tuberculosis varies little year by year. 
Improved methods of treatment, however, have caused a notice- 
able decline in the death rate from that disease. 


The following number of patients were treated in hospital or 
other institutions, the average duration of stay of patients in the 
City Fever Hospital being 23 - 5 days : — 


Scarlet Fever, 

Diphtheria, 

Erysipelas, 

Puerperal Fever, 

Acute Primary Pneumonia, 
Acute Influenzal Pneumonia, 
Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 
Non-Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 
Mumps, 

Observation Cases, 


City 

Hospital. 

13 

10 

1 


1 


1 


Other 

Institutions. 


0 

— 

1 


20 4 


No deaths occurred among the patients in the City Fever 
Hospital. 

Use of Disinfectants. 

A decision of some significance concerning the use of dis- 
infectants by Sanitary Inspectors was reached by the County 
Council who are now responsible for measures in the control of 
infectious diseases. Advances in bacteriological knowledge have 
shown that, for the most part, all the time and money which has 
been spent on disinfecting apartments after removal of cases of 
infectious diseases has been wasted. The popular belief in the 
power of disinfectants has been ill-founded and akin to the burn- 
ing of incense to propitiate a god of disease. Householders, t hoi*e- 
iore, need not be dismayed if the Sanitary Inspector declines to 
spray an apartment with disinfectant. All that is necessary to 
secure proper disinfection is the opening of doors and windows 
and scrubbing with soap and water. Articles of apparel and 
bedding alone need be steeped in disinfectant fluid suitably 
diluted or, on occasion, they may be steam disinfected. Citizens 
of St. Andrews have no reason to be apprehensive in the matter, 
lor the past few years a great many houses in the town have not 
been subjected to the process of disinfection and it has been found 


15 


that the number of secondary eases from these houses was no 
greater than the number from the houses which had been dis- 
infected. 


Diphtheria Immunisation . 

There are pleasing indications that the protection which can 
be gained against diphtheria by inoculation is being realised by 
parents. During the year 41 children were brought to the City 
Fever Hospital for the necessary series of injections. After the 
appropriate interval 30 children were re-tested and all gave a 
negative reaction. 

None of the children who had previously been inoculated con- 
tracted diphtheria during the epidemic of 1929, although several of 
them were known to have been exposed to infection. Similar results 
have been encountered in other centres in the country where 
diphtheria immunisation is practised. Such being the case a 
serious responsibility now rests with parents whose children 
become infected. 


MOTHER AND CHILD WELFARE SCHEME. 

The St. Andrews Maternity and Child Welfare Scheme affords 
an excellent illustration of the harmonious working of combined 
private and public interests. 

The St. Andrews Nursing and Child Welfare Association pro- 
vide and staff the Child Welfare Clinic at bb North Street, for 
infants and children under 2 years of age. 

The Council of the James Mackenzie Institute provide con- 
sulting rooms and laboratory services for children over two years 
of age and for ante-natal cases. 

The Medical Research Council give a grant which encompasses 
the salary of the Child Welfare Officer and the upkeep of his 
records. 

The County Council give a grant towards the funds of the St. 
Andrews Nursing and Child Welfare Association and two of their 
officials, the Area Medical Officer and the District Health Visitor, 
are associated with the Child Welfare Officer in the work of the 
scheme. 

Dr. Rowand, the Child Welfare Officer, has brought the scheme 
to a high degree of efficiency and has established intimate co- 
operation with the general practitioners of the town. 


16 


Births. 


The Health Visitor received intimation regarding 104 births 
of which 3 had occurred outside the Burgh boundaries. Of these 
births 15 were attended by doctors in the Memorial Cottage 
Hospital, 4 by doctors and private nurses in patients’ homes, 47 
by doctors and the Maternity and Child Welfare Nurse in patients’ 
homes and 38 by the Maternity and Child Welfare Nurse alone. 
There were 6 illegitimate births. The number of still births was 
2, one in the practice of doctors and one in the practice of mid- 
wives. There was one case of twins in the Burgh. 


Infantile Mortality. 

The number of deaths among infants under one year of age rose 
from 5 in 1930 to 9 in 1931, the rate being 93 per 1000 births. 
One of the infants died in hospital in Edinburgh and another in 
hospital in Dundee. The causes of death were as follows : — 


Under 1 week — 

Prematurity, . . . . . . . . 2 

Intracranial Haemorrhage, . . . . . . 3 

Congenital Heart, . . . . . . . . \ 

3 — 6 months — 

Broncho-pneumonia, . . . . . . 2 

Congenital heart, . . . . . . . . 1 


There were three deaths among children in the 1 — 5 years age 
group. 


Altogether the year was not a happy one so far as the mortality 
rate among the juvenile population was concerned. 

Maternal Mortality. 

No deaths occurred among mothers — a satisfactory contrast. 

Nursing Service. 

One whole-time midwife is employed by the St. Andrews 
Nursing and Child Welfare Association. The Health Visitor is 
also a registered midwife but her practice is confined to emergenev 
cases only. 

The Association also employs a District Nurse and a Baby- 
craft Nurse who attends to the Ailing Babies V ard in the Centre. 

There were nine calls for medical help as under — 

Condition of baby, ... .. .. _ 1 


Ruptured perineum, 

Delay in 1st stage, 

Delay in 2nd stage, 
Cyanosis, 

Discharging eyes. 

Still births, 

Ante partum haemorrhage, 


1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 


17 


Home Visitations. 


The total number of children 

under 5 years 

of ase on the 

register ot the Child Welfare Centre was 546 at the end of the vea.r 

I he following number of visits were paid : — 



Number 

Total 


Visited. 

Visits. 

Under 1 year, 

199 

1407 

1 — 5 years, . . 

347 

1002 

Expectant Mothers, . . 

81 

420 

Total, 

.. 627 

2829 


In addition 44 visits were paid to children residing outside the 
Burgh and 8 visits were paid to 3 expectant mothers residing 
outside the Burgh. 


The total number of visits paid by the nurses was therefore 


Infant Feeding. 

The following figures are applicable to the number of infants 
on the register reaching the age of 6 months in each of the past 
10 years : — 

T . Y * ar - , 192-2 1923 1924 1925 1920 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 

Per cent, breast fed, . . 64 61 62 63 59 66 62 58 50 59 

Per cent, partially breast 

Tj ft ' d > , •• •• 6 6 16 4 12 8 11 10 14 5 

Per cent, bottle fed, . . 30 33 22 33 29 26 27 32 36 36 

It is satisfactory to note that an increase occurred in the 

number of babies who were entirely breast fed. It is also en- 
couraging to know that of 60 babies attended at birth by the 
maternity nurse of the Association and followed up by her during 
the breast feeding period, 65 per cent, were entirely breast fed at 
6 months, 3 per cent, were partially breast fed and 32 per cent, 
were artificially fed. Since it is an undoubted fact that human 
milk is the correct food for the human infant it is encouraging to 
record that the decline in the number of breast fed babies which 
occurred in 1930 has been arrested. 

Ante-Natal Consultations. 

Ante-natal consultations continued to be held in the James 
Mackenzie Institute. Expectant mothers were brought to the 
Clinic by their own doctors and by the midwife. All patients 
were attended by the doctors of their own choice. 

Fourteen weekly sessions were held during which 37 expectant 
mothers made 40 attendances. None of them presented any 
marked abnormal features on examination. 


18 


Post-Natal Consultations. 

There is no need for special facilities for post-natal consultations 
in the Burgh. During the year the Association Nurses paid 1428 
visits to 88 post-natal cases. 

CHILD WELFARE CONSULTATIONS. 

1. Child Welfare Centre. 

Clinics were held by Dr. Rowand twice weekly in the Child 
Welfare Centre, in sessions lasting 2\ hours each. One hundred 
and three sessions were held during which 252 children were 
inspected. The following attendances were recorded 


(a) Number of children attending — 

(i) Under 1 year of age, . . . . . . 196 

(ii) 1 — 2 years of age, . . . . . . 31 

(iii) Over 2 years, . . . . . . . . 25 


Total, . . . . . . . . 252 


( b ) Number of attendances — 

(i) Under 1 year of age, . . . . . . 992 

(ii) 1 — 2 years of age, . . . . . . 163 

(iii) Over 2 years, . . . . . . . . 48 


Total, . . . . . . . . 1203 


In addition 113 visits were paid to the Nurses at the Centre at 
times other than those of the doctor’s consultation hours. 

Over 90 per cent, of all the babies born in the Burgh again 
received the benefit of the service of the Centre. The high 
percentage might be thought to indicate that many people, who 
should not, were availing themselves of the facilities offered by 
the Centre. The presumption is not justifiable, however. Many 
better class mothers are as much in need of the advice which the 
Centre can give regarding infant feeding and hygiene as are poor 
mothers and family doctors encourage their patients to attend. 

2. James Mackenzie Institute. 

Sixty-one special clinics in sessions lasting 2| hours each were 
held by Dr. Rowand in the James Mackenzie Institute for children 
over 2 years of age. 

(a) Number of children attending — 

(i) 2 — 5 years of age, . . . . . . 206 

(ii) Over 5 years of age, . . . . . . 126 


Total, 


332 


19 


( 6 ) Number of attendances — 

(i) 2 — 5 years of age, .. . . _ 342 

(ii) Over 5 years of age, . . . . J 34 

Total > • • • • . . . . 476 

The special clinic to which school children are summoned by 
post card was continued. Its popularity remained undiminished 
The Area Medical Officer of the District continued to add to 

Dr. Rowand's records and to utilise the material recorded in his 
files. 

Observation Nursery. 

The observation Nursery at the Child Welfare Centre provides 
for the needs of ailing babies and for infants in need of regulated 
feeding or hygienic care. Four cots are available. 


Number of cases attending. 

Resident. 

Non-Resident. 

(i) Under 1 year of age, 

4 

54 

(ii) Over 1 year of age, 

1 

1 

Total, 

5 

55 

Number of attendances — 


' 

(i) Under 1 year of age, 

52 

627 

(ii) Over 1 year of age, 

41 

3 

Total, 

~93 

630 

Food and Milk Supply. 



On the application of the Health V isitor food and milk was given 
by the County Council to 5 nursing mothers and 9 necessitous 
infants and pre-school children. All the applications were 
approved of on medical grounds by the Medical Officer of the 
Centre. 

Anonymous gifts of 1 pint of milk daily and of cod liver oil 
occasionally were given to the Centre by private individuals. 
All the children attending the Infant Schools were supplied with 
a pint of milk daily by Mrs. Younger of Mount Melville. 

All the milk given from these various sources was certified. 

Provision for Maternity Cases. 

Since accommodation was no longer available, the arrangement 
originally made by the Town Council with the Scores Nursing 
Home regarding the hospital treatment of cases of difficult or 
dangerous labour, terminated during the year. Such cases are 
now transferred to Dundee after consultation with Dr. Margaret 
Fairlie who has been appointed for the purpose by the County 
Council. 


20 


The Memorial Cottage Hospital is registered as a Maternity 
Home under the Midwives and Maternity Homes (Scotland) Act. 
1927. The premises are in every way of satisfactory nature. 
Four beds in single wards are available. 

Sixteen confinements took place, all with medical attendance. 
Of these 4 were instrumental deliveries due to delay in the second 
stage or to contracted pelvis. There were no maternal deaths. 

Two infants under one week died. There were no still births. 

On account of the feeble condition of the mother one infant was 
given artificial feeding. 

Provision for Cases of Puerperal Fever. 

Facilities for the treatment of cases of puerperal fever were 
provided in Thornton Infectious Diseases Hospital which is fully 
equipped for the purpose. One patient, who unfortunately died, 
was transferred from the Burgh. 

FOOD SUPPLY. 

Milk Supply. 

The County Council is now the Local Authority responsible for 
the milk supply under the Milk and Dairies (Scotland) Act, 1914. 
In St. Andrews there are four dairy farms containing 60 cows and 
four dairy shops. All the premises complied reasonably well with 
the requirements of the County Dairy Bye-laws and no circum- 
stances having an injurious influence on the milk supply were 
discovered. 

Certified milk is supplied to the town from Woodbum Dairy 
and from Wester Balrymonth Dairy Farm, which is situated out- 
side the Burgh boundaries. The high statutory requirements for 
the production of this milk were fully maintained and the town 
is fortunate in having available such sources of supply. 

The City Fever Hospital and the Child Welfare Centre are 
supplied by the Local Authority with Certified Milk and St. 
Leonards School for Girls obtains its milk supply partly from a 
County Certified Milk Daily Farm and partly from a model dairy 
farm which produces milk fully the equal of certified milk in 
cleanliness and quality. 

On a day in the month of April, a time when the population is 
as stationary as may be, an investigation was made into the con- 
sumption of milk in the Burgh. The following number of gallons 
of milk were supplied from 18 dairy premises : — 

Certified Milk, . . . . 68 gallons. 

Ordinary Milk, . . . . 679 „ 


Total, 


747 gallons. 


21 


The average consumption per head of population was 0 54 
pints. A similar investigation was carried out in 1928 when it 
was found that the average consumption was 0 55 pints. There 
continues, therefore, to be every indication that there is room for 
a considerably increased consumption of milk in the Burgh. The 
excellence of milk as an article of diet has been proved again and 
again. Not only is it a perfectly balanced food of high nutritive 
value but its cheapness renders it a commodity within the reach 
of all members of the community. Although it may not be so 
satisfying, it is healthier to consume a pint of milk than to eat a 
loaf of the white, finely milled bread of to-day. 

Sale of Food and Drugs Acts. 

Sixty-five samples of food stufs were submitted for analysis. 
All were reported to be genuine except 2 samples of mince which 
were found to be adulterated. Six samples of icecream were 
subjected to analysis. There is no standard of food value for 
icecream but the Analyst declared the samples to be “ of low 
class quality ” — a sad reflection on the icecream vendors of St. 
Andrews. 


FACTORIES AND WORKSHOPS ACTS. 

Twenty-eight visits of inspection were paid to the factories, 
workshops and workplaces in the Burgh. Defects under the 
Public Health Acts were found in 3 premises in 2 of which the 
necessary remedial steps were taken. On the whole the condition 
of these premises in the town is of very satisfactory nature. 


Sanitary Inspector’s Office, 

Town Hall Buildings, 

St. Andrews. 


To The Honourable The Department of Health for Scotland, and 
the Provost, Magistrates and Councillors of the Royal 
Burgh of St. Andrews. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, 

I have the honour of submitting to you my Second Annual 
Report upon the General Sanitary Condition of the Burgh, and 
the work done by the Department during the year 1931. 

I would again acknowledge the assistance rendered me by the 
other officials of the Town Council, the Medical Officer of Health 
and the District Sanitary Inspector of the Fife County Council. 

The report has been prepared in accordance with the require- 
ments of the Department of Health for Scotland. 

I have the honour to remain, 

Ladies and Gentlemen, 

Your obedient Servant, 

ALEXANDER H. STEELE. 


SANITARY INSPECTOR'S REPORT, 1931. 


The Department call upon each Sanitary Inspector to include 
in his report 

(a) A general account of the sanitary state of the Burgh. This 
account should deal specifically with water-supply, drainage 
(including sewage disposal), and scavenging, and with any 
suggestions for the improvement of these services. It should 
also deal with nuisances and other matters affecting the public 
health . 

(b) Particulars as to (i) the number of common water-closets in 
use in the Burgh, shewing separately the number serving 2, 3, 4, 
and 5 or more tenants respectively ; (ii) the number of houses 
without water-supply and sink inside the house ; and (iii) the 
number of (a) dry closets, ( b ) privy-middens, and (c) ashpits, 
shewing for each separately the number serving 2, 3, 4 and 5 or 
more tenants respectively. 

(c) An account of his general inspections, and of any special 
inspections or enquiries, including the supervision of slaughter- 
houses and other offensive trades, and the sanitary condition of 
factories and workshops. 

(d) An account of the condition of the common lodging-houses. 

(e) An account of the condition of the burial-grounds. 

( / ) An account of his proceedings under the Burgh Police 
Acts. 


METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

On Friday, the 8th May 1931, the Meteorological Station was 
transferred from the Boys’ Brigade Hall site to a new site on the 
Bruce Embankment, under the supervision of Mr. R. H . Matthews, 
Meteorologist, R.A.F. Base, Leuchars, and the new site is situated 
1325 feet above Ordnance Datum. The equipment of the 
station consists of the following instruments : — 

Mercury Barometer — Kew pattern (situated in Putting Green 
Pavilion) 20 05 feet above Ordnance Datum. 

Dry Bulb Thermometer 

Wet Bulb Thermometer, T „ 

Maximum Thermometer, n ‘ crccn ' 

Minimum Thermometer, 

Rain Gauge — Snowdon pattern. 

Grass Minimum — Terrestrial Radiation. 

Earth Thermometers — 1 foot and 4 feet below the surface of 
the ground. 

Campbell-Stokes Sunshine Recorder — 112 feet above Ordnance 
Datum (placed at Kinburn). 


24 


During the year 1929 it was found that the sunshine records 
taken at the Meteorological Station were not reliable, by reason 
of encroachment by surrounding buildings falsifying results, and 
the Sunshine Recorder was accordingly removed to its present 
site ; 

During the year 1931 there was registered a total of 1376'8 
hours of bright sunshine, and this represents the third highest 
reading for Scotland. 

On January 29th, 1931, an article headed “ Let’s Boost our 
Sunshine ” appeared in the Dundee Courier and Advertiser, and 
commenced with the glorious slogan “ Scotland for Sunshine,” 
and went on to deal with the reputed decry of Caledonia being 
stern and wild, and for Scotch mists and such like, and making 
the suggsetion that there was no reason why the patriotic travel 
authorities who are endeavouring to attract the travelling public 
to our country should not boost out sunshine records a bit more. 

The article dealt with the fact that in 1931 Arbroath held the 
distinction of being the sunniest place in Scotland, and drew 
attention to the fact that apart from Arbroath there Were other 
Scottish places that had something to make a noise about in the 
matter of sunshine. 

The following table shows the sunshine at the South Coast of 
England and Channel Islands, all of these places being well 
boosted as resorts : — 


Guernsey, 

.. 1753-8 

Jersey, 

1750-3 

Eastbourne 

.. 1670-9 

Brighton, 

1635 0 

Southport, 

. . 1535-5 

Bournemouth, 

1494*0 

Douglas (Isle of Man) 1429-0 

Llandudno 

1371-6 

Leamington, 

.. 1196-3 

Blackpool, 

1348-2 

Colwyn Bay 

.. 1353-3 

Harrogate, 

1259-4 

Ilfracombe, 

.. 1341-7 

Cambridge, 

1324-4 

Southport, 

.. 1361-2 

Ascot, 

1360 1 

Keswick, 

. . 1053-6 

Malvern, 

1376-5 

Compare the figures above with the following Scottish totals. 

and it will be observed that Scotland 
with the English resorts. 

compares very favourably 

Arbroath, 

.. 1407-6 

Leuehars, 

13S8-4 

St. Andrews, 

.. 1376-8 

Carnoustie, 

1362-7 

Tiree, 

. . 1348-9 

Inehkeith, 

1322-4 

Dunbar, 

. . 1308-4 

Edinburgh, 

1297-8 

Dundee, 

. . 1278-7 

Fort, rose, 

1275-9 

Perth, 

. . 1267-6 

North Berwick, . . 

1238-3 

Inverness, 

. . 1236-3 

Nairn, 

1235 0 

Aberdeen, 

.. 1216-4 

Banff. 

1208-5 

Stornoway, 

.. 1201-9 

Dumfries, 

1180-8 

Stirling, 

.. 11471 

Stonehaven, 

11431 

Paisley, 

.. 1125-6 

Oban, 

1117-7 

Lerwick, 

.. 11161 

Rothesay, 

1092-8 

Dalwhinnie, 

. . 1005-0 

Fort Augustus, 

733-7 


25 


Fort Agustus gives the lowest record in the whole list, but it 
compares with Manchester, Oldham Road. 876'9 ; Onich, 894'9 ; 
Manchester, Whitworth Park, 967 '7 ; Bolton, 970 8 ; Swinton’ 
997-6. 


(With acknowledgment to Dundee Courier.) 

The following table shows the number of hours (daily mean) 
of bright sunshine during 1931, at five stations in Scotland 


Mouth. 

Aberdeen 

Arbroath 

Carnoustie Leuehars St. Andrews 

J anuary. 

2 03 

2-47 

213 


2-71 

2-44 

February, 

292 

311 

2-74 


2-92 

2-99 

March, 

3-45 

3-78 

375 


4-28 

4-02 

April 

3 '56 

4-81 

4-58 


4-32 

4-46 

May 

6-03 

6-75 

6-76 


6-86 

7 05 

June, 

5 09 

6-06 

5-96 


5-83 

5-72 

July, 

2-67 

3-20 

301 


2-93 

3 39 

August, 

417 

4 05 

3-93 


3-86 

3-66 

September, 

3-67 

4-49 

4-67 


4-48 

4-60 

October, 

336 

4-47 

416 


413 

4-44 

November, 

1-56 

1-77 

1-68 


1-84 

1-95 

December, 

1-46 

1-28 

1-41 


1-45 

0-53 

The following table shows the number of hours of 

bright sun 

shine per 

month at six stations 

in Scotland 



Month 

Aberdeen St. Andrews Stirling 

Paisley 

Oban 

Rothesay 

January, 

628 

75'7 

57-0 

48-7 

37 ’6 

44-6 

February, 

801-7 

803-7 

66-4 

60-6 

54-3 

50-9 

March, 

107 0 

124-7 

124-6 

100-5 

121-6 

112-5 

April, 

106-8 

1338 

130-5 

134-2 

127-6 

130-8 

May, 

186-8 

218-6 

162-7 

173-2 

163-6 

157-9 

June, 

152-7 

171-5 

110-7 

107-9 

120-5 

100-0 

July, 

82-9 

1051 

99-8 

95-6 

84-6 

80-6 

August, 

129-4 

1135 

148-4 

166-2 

192-7 

189-0 

September, 

1101 

1380 

118-6 

98-2 

104-9 

97-2 

October. 

104-2 

137-5 

96-9 

991 

72-1 

86-7 

November, 

46-8 

58-4 

18-5 

30-0 

23-9 

29-8 

December, 

45-2 

16-3 

13 0 

11-4 

14-3 

12-8 


From the above table it will be observed that with the ex- 
ception of December the hours of bright sunshine recorded at 
St. Andrews is considerably greater during the winter months 
than at the other five stations. 

WATER SUPPLY. 

The water supply to the Burgh is excellent in quality and the 
quantity is abundant. 

The supply is owned and controlled by the Town Council, and 
the whole supply is drawn from Cameron reservoir which has a 
capacity of 222,000,000 gallons. 

The catchment area at Cameron extends to 1456 acres, and 
approximately 50 per cent, of the area is owned and controlled 
by the Town Council and is laid out in pasture. 


26 


The area of Cameron reservoir is 105 acres, and is situated 
474 0 feet above Ordnance Datum. 

The supply at Cairnsmill reservoir is now used entirely for the 
irrigation of the Links. 

On the whole supply for the Burgh being drawn from Cameron 
Reservoir, it Avas found that the existing main Avas hardly capable 
of delivering the quantity likely to be required during the summer 
seasons. It A\ r as therefore decided to lay a duplicate main from 
Cameron Reservoir to Pipeland Filters, which Avould cope Avith 
the demand for years to come. 

From the intake at Cameron Reservoir the neAV main is a 12 
inch diameter cast-iron pipe for a distance of L71 miles, there- 
after it is a 9 inch diameter cast-iron pipe to the filters, a distance 
of 2T2 miles, or a total length of new main of 3'83 miles. 

Cross connections are provided between the old and the netv 
mains, at Priorletham Road, and at Langraw, near the railway 
so that sections of the main can be cut off for repairs, etc. 

The scheme Avas approved of for Grant by the Unemployment 
Grants Committee. The contract Avas commenced on loth June 
and completed by 31st October. The work was someAvhat 
retarded by an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease on Langraw 
Farm, and for some Aveeks nothing could be done on the lands of 
this farm. 

The old filters at Lower Pipeland, fed from Cairnsmill Reservoir, 
are uoav in disuse, and all the Avater is filtered at Upper Pipeland. 
The use of Arran sand as a filtering medium Is being extended, and 
is replacing the local sand. Of the 12 filters at Upper Pipeland 
at the end of the year, five had been filled Avith Arran sand and 
seven still remained with local sand. The Avork of changing oter 
to Arran sand is still proceeding. 

The folloAving table gives the length and size of new mains laid 
during the year : — 

12 inch. 9 inch. 3 inch. 
Cameron to Pipeland, . . 1*71 mis. 242 inis. 

The “ Scores,” . . . . . . • • 245 yds. 

John Street, . . . . . . . . . . 97 yds. 

or a total of 4 02 Miles of new mains. 

The total length of mains is now 21‘43 miles. 9’43 miles being 
trunk mains and 12 miles being distribution mains. The 3-inch 
main laid in the “ Scores ” Avas put down in lieu of an existing 
2-inch main removed. 

Thirty-two iicav connections Avere made to the Avater mains 
during the year, those being made up as folloAvs : — 

7 connections of 1 inch horc. 

1 1 connections of J inch bore. 

14 connections of | inch bore. 


27 


The new 3-inch main at the Scores serves the district from 
Murray Park to the Grand Hotel, while the new main in John 
Street supplies the houses there, from Argyle Street to the Lade 
Braes. 

During the year 1100 Notices were issued in respect of waste 
of water and defective fittings. 

The average consumpt of water per head of the population was 
71 ‘7 gallons or double the quantity usually allowed for domestic 
purposes, and with the number of notices issued in respect of 
waste it is to be assumed that a great deal of water is allowed to 
inn to waste, and that the average consumer does not appreciate 
the fact that in the Burgh water is a manufactured product in 
the preparation of which, for consumption, has involved con- 
siderable expense. 

The charge for water is very low, considering the convenience 
and benefit, and as the charge is based on the rental of the house, 
irrespective of the amount used, and as no restrictions are placed 
on its consumption, very little importance is attached to it, and 
the prevention of waste is. in many cases, an unnecessary attention, 
and it behoves all to exercise reasonable precautions to prevent 
wasteful and extravagant use of water and thus endeavour to 
keep down the cost to the lowest level consistent with the 
adequacy and purity of the supply. 

The following tables give the Abstract of Monthly Consumpt 
of water filtered at Pipeland, and the Abstract of Consumpt of 
water filtered at Pipeland for the years 1911 to 1931 : — 


ST. ANDREWS WATER. 

Abstract of Monthly Consumpt of Water Filtered at Pipeland 1931. 


28 


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I am indebted to Mr. Watson, Burgh Engineer, for the fore- 
going tables, and information regarding the water supply. 


30 


DRAINAGE. 


With the exception of flooding at Fleming Place. Dempster 
Terrace and the Scores, the sewerage system of the Burgh has 
functioned satisfactorily. 

Unfortunately, on two occasions, flooding took place in parts 
of the Burgh, due to exceptionally heavy rains, and to the fact 
that at the time of the downpour the sewers were tideloeked, 
thus surcharging the sewers. 

To overcome this repeated flooding G manholes were built on 
the sewer along the Scores and the sewer was dragged for its 
whole length. In addition the sewer at Dempster Terrace was 
lifted and relaid, and in the course of this work the old sewer was 
found to have sunk in places. There are still certain works to be 
carried out to obviate the flooding, and it is hoped that when this 
work is completed the results will be as desired. 

New sewers were also laid to serve the latest development of 
the Housing Scheme at Larnond Drive, Shields Avenue, St. 
Nicholas Street, and also at Greenside Place Improvement 


Scheme. 

The following table gives the 
the new sewers constructed : — 

District 

St. Nicholas Street, Housing 
Scheme, 

Lamoncl Drive Housing Scheme, 
Shields Avenue Housing Scheme, 
Dempster Terrace Sewer, 

Dempster Terrace Overflows, 
Dyersbrae Sewer, 

Dyers brae Twin Steel Pipes, 
Dyersbrae Overflows, . . 

Greenside Place Sewer, 

Greenside Place Overflows, 

Total in yards, 


work carried out and the sizes of 
Size of Sewer. 


15" 

12" 

9" 

8' 

7' 

6' 


75 


270 





154 


84 

87 


, . 

88 





50 





42 

. . 





38 

i2 






54 





75 

17 





15 



IS 



170 

208 

242 

288 

84 

87 


Grand Total, 1079 yards. 

Twenty-seven new connections were made to the sewers in the 
Burgh during the year these being made up as follows : — 
Kinked Terrace, 

St. Leonards Road. . . • • • • 1 

Larnond Drive, . . . . • • • • 8 

St. Nicholas Street, 

Shields Avenue, . . . . • • • • 4 

West Bum Lane, 

Buchanan Gardens, 

South Street, . . . . . • • • 1 


27 


REFUSE DISPOSAL AND CLEANSING. 


The Burgh refuse is collected entirely by motor, and the 
services of two S.D. Freighters are utilized in this direction, and 
the refuse is disposed of by controlled tipping. 

The method of collection and disposal has been in use for some 
considerable time, although it was only at the beginning of the 
year that the second motor vehicle was added to the equipment 
of the Cleansing Department. This vehicle took the place of 
three horses, but with the growth of the town it is estimated that 
the two motors are doing the work of seven horses. The manner 
in which the cleansing and refuse collection and disposal has been 
carried out has given no cause for complaint. 

During the year the refuse was disposed by controlled tipping 
at a tip on the West Sands. The layers of material are restricted 
to a certain depth, and each day’s deposit is top dressed with soil. 

The cleansing of the streets is carried out on the “ district ” 
system, where one scavenger is constantly employed. 

Fortunately, the absence of snow during the winter months 
made the work of the department easier, and there was no extra 
men taken on for the clearing of snow from the streets. 

During the year a length of 588 yards of new streets has been 
added to the length of roads in the Burgh, as follows : — 

District Length Width between Description 


In addition, Langlands Road was widened for a length of 157 
yards along the Recreation Park, to its full width of 40 feet. 

Greenside Place was greatly improved by being widened (in 
some parts to its full width of 40 feet) with 6 feet adamant slab 
footpaths. The roadway v r as also raised at the south end to 
prevent flooding from the Kinness Burn, and a new bridge 40 feet 
wide was constructed across the burn. 

The great increase, in recent years, of the length of streets, 
and the erection of new houses, lias added very considerably to 
the work of the Department, in connection with refuse collection 
and street cleansing, and during the year it was found necessary 
to increase the staff by one man. 

The fouling of the streets and footpavements by dogs has been 
very much in evidence during the past year, and in common 
■with other towns, the matter is one which presents some difficulty 


Fences 


Lamond Drive. 
Shields Avenue. 


340 yds. 40 ft. Tarmac with 0 ft. footpaths. 

80 yds. 30 ft. Tarmac witli 5 ft. 0 inch. 

footpaths. 

168 yds. 30 ft. Tarmac with 5 feet 6 inch. 

footpaths. 


St. Nicholas Street. 


32 


in finding a suitable remedy, but it Is to be regretted that even 
dogs on leads may be seen being allowed by their owners to foul 
the pavements. 

The question of litter is one which occupies a prominent place 
in most of the newspapers in the country, and in common with all 
other districts St. Andrews is not all it could and should be in 
this respect. There are at present 30 litter baskets throughout 
the Burgh, and although these are made use of to a great extent 
there is room for considerable improvement, particularly by those 
persons who frequent the fried fish and chip restaurants and carry 
out the meal to be eaten on the street. 

I venture to quote two short odes on the litter question, which 
I think well worthy of repetition, and if acted upon, would do 
much to assist in keeping the natural beauty of this and other 
districts. 

The first was erected at Wrotham in Kent, and is headed " A 
Request from the Holiday Fellowship,” while the second appeared 
at Oare, in Somerset : — 

Friend, when you stray, or sit and take your ease, 

On Moor, or Fell, or under spreading trees, 

Pray, leave no traces of your wayside meal, 

No paper bag, no scattered orange peel ; 

Nor daily journal, littered on the grass, 

Others may view them with distaste, and pass. 

Let no one say, and say it to your shame 
That all was beauty here, until You came. 


Resemble not the slimy snails 
Who with their filth record their trails 
Let it be said where you have been 
You leave the face of Nature clean. 

BUILDINGS. 

Fifty-three applications were submitted and approved of by 
the Works Committee of the Town Council. 

The plans submitted may be classified as follows : — 

Municipal houses, . . . . . . . • A HI 

New Houses (private), . . . . • • 4 

New Business premises (including University build- 
ings), . . . . . . . . . . 3 

Alterations to Houses, . . . . • . 13 

Alterations to business premises, . . . . 16 

Miscellaneous (garages, sheds, railings, hanging 

signs, etc.), .. .. .. •• 17 


53 


33 


^ Fifty-eight houses were erected and passed during the year. 
These houses are of the following sizes 

Four 4-rooraed houses, j 

Four 3-roomed houses, Municipal. 

Four 2-roomed houses, I 

Two 4-roomed houses (private). 

The following table gives the number of new sanitary fittings 
erected in connection with the foregoing alterations and new 
buildings : — 

61 new baths. 

71 new wash-hand basins. 

63 new water-closets. 

61 new fireclay sinks. 

52 new fireclay wash-tubs. 

308 Total. 


TESTING OF DRAINAGE AND SANITARY FITTINGS. 

The smoke test was applied to the drainage and sanitary 
fittings of the following properties : — 

56 Municipal houses at Priestden Parks. 

3 Bungalows at Kinkell Terrace. 

Windsor Hotel. 

Deans Court. 

Inglewood. 

29 Argyle Street. 

New house at Buchanan Gardens. 

In all cases the work was found to have been carried through in 
a tradesmanlike manner, and proper interception, disconnection 
and ventilation provided. 


PROVISION OF WATER CLOSETS AND SINKS IN 
TENEMENTAL PROPERTIES. 

During the year 7 Notices were issued to proprietors to provide 
extra water closets. 

Two of the Notices have been complied with, two are now in 
hand, and the remaining three, are still pending. 


34 


A great many of the properties, where extra water closets are 
required, are of an old type, and it is proposed to have a survey 
of these before doing anything in the nature of calling for the 
provision of extra fitments. 

The same remarks apply regarding the provision of sinks in 
houses. 

From the records it appears that the figures given in previous 
reports were compiled from the results of a housing survey carried 
through in 1923, and it appears that these figures are hardly 
reliable, but the whole question is receiving attention. 

PUBLIC CONVENIENCES. 

The public conveniences within the Burgh are well kept. 
These are washed daily and no complaint was lodged regarding 
their condition. 

The conveniences in the Burgh are as under : — 

Ladies Waiting Room, Market Street-4 W.C.’s and 3 Wash-hand 
basins. 

Ladies Waiting Room, Links — 2 W.C.’s and 1 Wash-hand basin. 

Gentlemen’s Conveniences, Links — 5 W.C.’s, 1 Wash-hand 
basin and 2 three-stalled urinals. 

Gentlemen’s Conveniences, Harbour — 3 W.C.’s and two-stalled 
urinal. 

Gentlemen’s Conveniences, Kirkhill — 2 W.C.’s and two-stalled 
urinal. 

Gentlemen’s Conveniences, Church Square — 2 W.C.’s and four- 
stalled urinal. 

East Bents Putting Green — 1 W.C. and two-stalled urinal for 
Gentlemen, and 1 W.C. for Ladies. 

Kinburn Public Park — 1 W.C. and two-stalled urinal for 
Gentlemen and 1 W.C. for Ladies. 

With the exception of the conveniences at the Harbour, and 
one W.C. at Church Square, all the W.C.’s and wash-hand basins 
are in cubicles, with automatic slot-locks. 

It is with regret that I have to again refer to the amount of 
damage done to the fittings of the conveniences, and it is very 
difficult to detect the perpetrator of this wanton destruction, and 
as well as the cost of repair to the fittings, locks are put out of 
action so that persons desiring admission to the various con- 
veniences are greatly inconvenienced. 

It should be the duty of all persons who see damage being done 
to these conveniences, to report the matter to the police, and in 
doing so they arc protecting what is their own interests. 


35 


FOOD AND DRUGS ACTS. 

During the year the following samples of foods were procured 


for analysis : — 

Milk, . . . . . . . . . , 43 

Mince, . . . . . . . . , . 3 

Whole Rice, . . . . . . . . 1 

Ground Rice, . . . . . . . . 1 

Oatmeal, . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Flour, . . . . . . . , . , 1 

Sugar, . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Creamola, . . . . . . . . , . 1 

Margarine, . . . . . . . . . . j 

Ground Cinnamon, . . . . . . . . 1 

Tea, . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Black Pepper, . . . . . . . . 1 

Cocoa, . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Ground Coffee, . . . . . . . . 1 

Ice Cream, . . . . . . . . . . (3 


Total, . . . . . . . . 64 


Of the 64 samples submitted to the Analyst, 43 milk and 19 
other food samples were reported upon as being “ Genuine,” 
while 2 samples of mince were reported upon as “ Non-Genuine.” 

The highest “ Fat ” content of the samples of milk submitted 
for analysis was 4*50 and the lowest was 3 00 and the average 
“ Fat ” content of the whole 43 samples was 3 63. 

The following table gives the result of the analysis of the 6 
samples of ice-cream : — 

Fat. 

Sample No. 88 Ice-cream, . . 2 16 per cent. 

» 89 „ .. .. 1-52 

„ 90 „ .. .. 252 

„ 91 „ .. .. 2-48 

„ 92 „ . . . . 2 02 

„ 93 „ .. 1-65 

The average “ Fat ” content of the whole 6 samples is only 2'06 
per cent, and does not even reach the standard of 3 per cent, 
usually found in sweet milk, and from this it may be deducted 
that the milk used in the manufacture must be skim milk, or 
considerably “ watered.” 

To quote the words of the Analyst, “ In the absence of a 
standard, I am reporting these samples genuine, although they 
are of a very low class quality.” 


36 


A standard of at least 3 per cent, of milk fat in this commodity 
is urgently required, and if the above can be taken as an indica- 
tion of the quality supplied, it is a misnomer to use the word 
“ cream,” and it is usually to allow' 1 pint of cream per gallon 
of sweet milk used to secure a “fat” content of at least 3 per cent. 


SLAUGHTERHOUSE. 

The present slaughterhouse has been adversely reported upon 
for the past few years, and I am pleased to report that a definite 
proposal for the erection of a new abattoir has now been agreed 
upon, and at present the building is in course of erection. I do 
not intend to deal with the new structure at this time, and will 
report the matter more fully after the premises have been in 
use. 


In regard to the present slaughterhouse, visits have been made 
from time to time, and it was always found that the present 
premises are kept in excellent order, and efficiently cleansed. 

During the year an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease in the 
district considerably added to the work at the Slaughterhouse, 
and as a precaution, I suggested to the Town Council that all 
vehicles entering the Slaughterhouse should be washed and dis- 
infected before leaving the premises. I am happy to say that 
the Town Council unanimously agreed to adopt my 'suggestion, 
and during the whole course of the outbreak all vehicles were 
treated, free of cost to the owners. 


The following table gives the number and kinds of animals 
slaughtered during 1931 : — 


Cattle, . . . . . . . . . . 729 

Sheep, . . . . . . . . . . 2640 

Pigs, . . . . . . . . 269 

Calves, . . . . . . . . . . 76 


Total, 


3714 


The following table gives the amount of diseased meat seized 
during the year : — 


Cattle. 

Wholly Partially. 
3 ' 3 


Sheep. 

Wholly. Partially. 
3 4 

203 lbs. 

1702 lbs. 


Pigs. 

Wholly. Partially. 

2 


1424 lbs. 


15 lbs. 


37 


Table of diseased organs and offal seized 


Disease. 

Cattle. 

Sheep. 

Pigs. No. of 



Seizures. 

Piped Liver, 

1030 lbs. 

22 lbs. 

160 

Liver Fluke, 

54 lbs. 

4 lbs. 

6 

Chill, 

6 lbs. 

. . 

2 

Abscess, 

108 lbs. 

3 lbs. 

9 

Tuberculosis, 

226 lbs. 

. . 

3 

Cirrhosis, 

8 lbs. 


2 


1432 lbs. 

29 lbs. 

182 


1461 

lbs. 


The total weight of all meat, 

offal and 

organs seized, and 

destroyed is 

1—3163 lbs. 




The business of Hide Factor and Tripe and Gut Cleaning is 
carried on within the Slaughterhouse, but as these are properly 
conducted, call for no comment. 


COMMON LODGING HOUSES. 

There are no Common Lodging Houses within the Burgh. 

BURIAL GROUNDS. 

The burial grounds within the Burgh are well kept, and no 
complaints were received regarding then - condition. 

BURGH POLICE ACTS. 

During the year 53 warrants were granted by the Works Com- 
mittee of the Town Council, 17 of these being for the erection and 
alteration of dwelling-houses, and 19 for the erection and altera- 
tion of business premises, and the remaining 17 being for work 
of miscellaneous character. 

Seventeen notices in terms of Section 164 of the Act of 1892 
were issued, and 32 notices in terms of Section 117 of the same 
Act. 

Court proceedings were taken against a householder for 
depositing night-soil and waste on the public street, and the 
charge was proved, and the Court admonished the accused. 

SCHOOLS. 

The schools within the Burgh are well kept, and with the 
exception of the Madras College no action has been taken in 
connection with any of the schools. In regard to the Madras 
College I carried out an inspection of the sanitary fitments, and 
prepared a lengthy report thereon. This report was forwarded 
to the proper authority, and at the end of the year the matter was 
pending. 


38 

PUBLIC HEALTH ACTS. 

In terms of Section G9 of the Public Health Act, 1897, one 
burial was undertaken at a cost of £6 5s of which a sum of 4s bd 
was refunded by the Insurance Company. 

NUISANCES. 

Twenty complaints were received during the year in respect 
of alleged nuisances. Five of these complaints were written and 
15 were made verbally. 

Considerable time is taken up in the investigation of these 
complaints, and in a great many instances it was found that the 
Sanitary Inspector was being made the “ cat’s paw ” of some 
“ stair-head ” quarrel. 

Nine intimations were issued in terms of Section 19 of the 
Public Health (Scotland) Act, 1897, but it was not found necessary 
to take any action under Section 20 of the Act. 

During the year it was found that on two occasions persons 
were camping in tents and vans on the dunes adjoining the West 
Sands. On being requested the parties removed, and no further 
trouble was experienced. 

There is a proper camping place at the East end of the town, 
and although there has been no serious cause for complaint, I 
intend to have a different arrangement carried into effect at the 
next season. 


HOUSING. 

During the year a start was made to erect 84 houses at Priestden 
Parks, making the seventh development of the housing scheme in 
the Burgh, and at the end of the year 56 of the houses were com- 
pleted and occupied. 

At the end of the year the number of houses that have been 
erected by the Town Council (including 15 houses at Abbey 


Court and South Street) 

was as follows : — 



Development, 

2 rms. 

3 rms. 

4 rms. 

5 rms. 

Total. 

Abbey Court, 

2 

. . 

3 


5 

South Court, 

2 

2 

1 


5 

42 South Street, 

3 

2 

# # 


5 

1st Development, 

• . 

20 

36 

ijj 

68 

2nd 

. , 

32 

18 


50 

3rd 

, , 

36 

15 


51 

4 th 

24 

, , 

, , 


24 

Gtli ,, 

20 

20 

10 


50 

6th „ 

48 


, , 


48 

7th „ 

4 

48 

4 


56 

Totals, 

103 

160 

87 

12 

362 


39 


On 31st December 1931, the applications for municipal houses 
numbered 117, and of these 75 were local applicants, and the 
remaining 42 were applicants from outwith the Burgh. 

The following table gives the number of applicants and the 
size of house applied for : — 


2- roomed houses, 

3 - roomed houses, 

4- roomed houses, 


Local Applicants. 


60 

11 

4 


Applicants Outwith Burgh. 

2- roomed houses, 

3- roomed houses, 

4- roomed houses, 


75 


17 

16 

9 


42 

The abo\ e figures do not include any allocations to be made to 
the remaining 28 houses still to be completed in the seventh 
development. 

Report for the year ending 31st December 1931, on proceedings 
taken as regards the Inspection, Improvement and Demolition 
and Closure of dwellinghouses. 

Housing ( Inspection of District) Regulations (Scotland) 1928. 

1. Number of dwellinghouses inspected, .. .. 5 

2. Number of dwellinghouses which on inspection were 

considered to be in a state so dangerous or in- 
jurious to health as to be unfit for human habita- 
tion, , . . . . . t . _ _ 5 

Housing ( Scotland ) Act, 1925. 

3. Number of cases where intimations were given under 

Section 20 (1) as to insufficient water-closet 
accommodation : — 

(a) Cases where requirements complied with by 

owners, . . . . . . .. (a).. 

(b) Cases where work carried out by Local 

Authority after failure of owners to do so ( b ) . . 

(c) Cases still pending, . . . . . . (c). . 


40 


4. Number of houses of (a) one apartment, and ( b ) two 
apartments, for the erection of which the consent 
of the Local Authority has been given in terms of 
Section One hundred and eleven, . . . . (a) . . 


Housing (Scotland) Act, 1930. 

6. Number of dwellinghouses in respect of which notices 

were served under Section 14 (1), 

7. Number of dwellinghouses rendered fit for human 

habitation following on notices under Section 


14 (1), 

8. Number of dwellinghouses in respect of which work 

has been done by the Local Authority under 
Section 15 (1), .. •• 

9. Number of dwellinghouses in respect of which in 

terms of Section 17 a demolition order or closing 
order under Section 16 (3) has been substituted 


for a notice under Section 14 (1), 

10. Number of dwellinghouses in respect of which 

notices were served in terms of Section 16(1), 

11. Number of dwellinghouses referred to in 10 : — 

(a) which have been rendered fit for human 

habitation, . . 

(b) in respect of which undertaking has been 

given that the house will not be used for 
human habitation until it has been 
rendered so fit, 

(c) in respect of which demolition orders have 

been made under Section 16 (3), 

(d) in respect of which closing orders have been 

made under Section 16 (3) and (4), 

12. Number of dwellinghouses in respect of which closing 
orders have, in terms of Section 16 (3), been 
determined by the Local Authority, following 
upon the houses having been rendered fit for 
human habitation, 

13. Number of houses in respect of which advances have 
been made in terms of Section 34 towards cost of 
repair and amount so advanced. 


3 

(а) .. 

( б ) .. 
(c) 1 
(<*)•• 


UNSOUND FOOD. 

During the year 32 sacks of Dutch potatoes, each weighing 
100 lbs., and 30 tins of preserved peaches, each weighing l lb., 
were seized and destroyed, as being unfit for human consumption. 
The potatoes were decaying, and the tins of peaches were badly 
blown. 


41 


FACTORY AND WORKSHOPS. 

Twenty-eight visits of inspection were made to Factories and 
Workshops in the Burgh. While the general sanitary condition 
of all the premises are good it was found necessary to issue 3 
notices calling for the removal of minor defects. 

INFECTIOUS DISEASE. 


k ifty-four notifications of Infectious Disease were notified 
during the year, and the following table gives the age group of the 
patients suffering from, and the number treated in hospital : — 


Disease. 

All 

Ages 

Und’r 
1 yr. 

1-5 

yrs. 

5-15 

yrs. 

1 5-25 
yrs. 

25-45 

yrs. 

45-65 

yrs. 

65 & 
up. 

Rem* 

Hos. 

Scarlet Fever, 

3 



2 



i 


3 

Diphtheria, 

8 

. , 

i 

3 

3 

i 



8 

Erysipelas 

2 




1 


i 


1 

Puerperal Fever, . . 

1 





i 



1 

Puerperal Pyrexia, 

1 




1 





Ophthalmia Neonatorum, . . 

2 

2 








Chickenpox, 

16 


2 

10 


2 




Acute Primary Pneumonia, 

8 




1 

4 

3 


2 

Acute Influenzal Pneumonia, 

1 




1 




1 

Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 

7 


, . 

1 

3 

1 

1 

1 

2 

Non-Pulmonary Tuberculosis, 

4 

1 

, . 

2 


1 



1 

Anterior Poliomyelitis 

1 


i 







Totals, . . 

54 

3 

4 

18 

12 

10 

6 

1 

19 


GENERAL INFORMATION. 


Area of Burgh, 

21138 Acres 

Gross Valuation, 

£133,000. 

Rateable Value, 

£99,000. 

Population, 

8,269 

Mileage of Streets and Roads : — 



Miles. 

Class 1, 

216 

Class 2, 

•94 

Class 3, and other roads, 

7-768 

Private Streets, 

•90 

Public Lanes and Walks, 

4459 

Total, 

16-227 


42 


PUBLIC PARKS AND OPEN SPACES. 

The area of land set aside for Public Parks. Recreation Grounds 
and Playing Fields extends to 1280*429 acres, and is made up as 


follows : — 

Acres. 

The Links, . . . . . . . . 134 86 

Cockshaugh Park, . . . . . . 5*353 

Kinburn Park, . . . . . . 6*682 

Bassaguard (children), . . . . 1*0 

Bruce Embankment, . . . . 5*4 

Wood burn (children), . . . . 2*834 

East Bents, . . . . . . . . 2*0 

*East and West Sands, . . . . 942*2 


1280*429 


* Above high water mark. 

There are 4 Golf Courses, 9 Tennis Courts, 5 Putting Greens and 
3 Bathing Stations, in addition, there are 18 Bathing Coaches in 
use during the season, and there is also a privately-owned Bathing 
Pool for ladies, and sea-water baths for both sexes.